The International Mine Action Standards document on training (06.10) sets down the following general requirements in this area:
1. Training should be based on a Training Needs Analysis (TNA);
2. Training should be included in strategic and annual planning as part of the development of national capacity;
3. Training should be properly designed and developed and guided by comprehensive Training Management Packages (TMP);
4. Unless training is carried out centrally under the control of the NMAA, mine action organisations should be required to submit their TMPs to the NMAA for approval prior to any training taking place;
5. Training should only be delivered by capable trainers. The NMAA should specify how qualifications will be checked;
6. Evaluation and testing of training should be carried out;
7. Training should be subject to internal and external monitoring; and
8. Training administration procedures should be developed.
When it is not known, a TNA should be carried out prior to developing and conducting any training. A TNA will help to:
1. Confirmer whether training is needed;
2. Determine content and scope of training;
3. Determine desired training outcomes;
4. Establish a basis for measuring success;
5. Determine causes of poor performance in the organization;
6. Gain management support;
A Training Needs Analysis should follow the following steps:
Step 1: Organizational analysis
Step 2: Task analysis: identifying performance discrepancies
Step 3: Identify training needs
HAMAP DEMINERS possesses the necessary expertise to perform a Training Needs Analysis. The personnel at the heart of this department are recognized authorities on training.
Each of them is qualified to conduct the following phases in a training project:
* performing an individual or collective Training Needs Analysis.
* assessing what type of training will best meet the training needs identified during the Analysis and by the client.
* establishing objectives for the training sessions that reflect the needs identified.
* designing session plans and instructional materials.
* delivering training either on a face-to-face basis or at a distance.
* evaluating training to ensure that it meets the needs identified.
* calculating the costs entailed in session delivery.
Various types of training are available:
’On-the-job’ training: ’On-the-job’ training is normally ongoing and facilitated while the staff member is carrying out duties and responsibilities commensurate with their current level of knowledge, skills and attitudes. ’On-the-job’ training does not require the complete range of training design.
Basic training: Basic training aims to give a recruit the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for each of his/her tasks to be satisfactorily carried out. For example: a ’basic demining course’ for newly recruited deminers.
Refresher training: Refresher training aims to update and/or maintain knowledge, skills and attitude levels over time. This type of training can be used on a regular basis, after periods of absence from a task or when there are signs that knowledge, skills and attitude levels have dropped. These signs may be identified through routine monitoring and inspection or as a result of an incident.
Continuation training: Continuation training is training that builds on previous training and provides additional knowledge, skills and attitudes. This type of training is applicable when there are changes to work methods, procedures and equipment or when staff are being given additional skills to advance their careers.
Monitoring training outcomes: HAMAP TRAINING staff are well equiped to monitor training outcomes, both by setting training tests which determine trainees’ progress, and by monitoring the quality of training delivered. The skills and knowledge acquired by trainees in the course of their training is assessed in the light of individuals’ needs, and those of the organization which employs them, as well as the site of operations.
The work of trainers is also monitored to ensure that it meets the requirements identified in the Training Needs Analysis, is appropriate to the site of operations, and conforms to the ’spirit’ of the employing organization. HAMAP TRAINING pays close and constant attention to the development of international standards in this area, and to good practice in the field. HAMAP TRAINING trainers are also demining technicians, active in mine clearance operations. They are regularly required to manage high level operations in the field.
HAMAP DEMINERS has its own training tools and techniques, which have already been adapted to suit a number of operational contexts, but are constantly evolving.
HAMAP DEMINERS is available to assist any clients wishing to improve their own skills, to arrange training activities for others, or simply to evaluate the skills, knowledge and attitudes of their EOD technicians.
HAMAP DEMINERS can also help national bodies develop National Mine Action Standards, Standard Operating Procedures and other national and local regulations.
At the present time, training is not available in other areas covered by the NGO HAMAP.
Publication : August 2008